What are renewable power sources and why are they so essential? Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is the subsequent layer up – in addition to the underlying storage, networking, and digital servers this may even embrace the tools and software that builders must build applications on top of: that would embrace middleware, database administration, working methods, and improvement instruments. Authentication mechanisms: There are various methods users can prove their identities to achieve entry to techniques or programs. These are called authentication mechanisms and typically embrace one thing a user knows — like a password and user ID — or one thing a consumer has — like a token or a device with a recognized IP address.